PIANC recently published WG184 Design Principles for Dry Bulk Marine Terminals in March 2019. PIANC formed WG184 as no current guidelines existed for the planning and design of specialist marine terminals for the import and export of bulk solids.
Marine fendering systems are necessary to absorb the energy of the moving ship as it berths at the wharf and thus protects the supporting wharf structure from damage. Mooring systems hold the vessel securely at the berth. If a ship undergoes excessive movements on its mooring lines, the fenders are required to prevent damage to both the ship and the wharf.